Dating of the exodus

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Albright in the 1930s, based largely on Palestinian archaeological evidence, and promoted by him throughout his career.’, Wood, ‘The Rise and Fall of the 13, 48/3 (2005), 473.

[17] ‘The Late Bronze Age (LB) was characterized by a problematic lack of fortified cities.

‘This approach seems to have been pioneered initially by James Jack, who challenged the 13th-century BC date in his 1925 book, The Date of the Exodus in the Light of External Evidence.

Jack argued that both biblical and extrabiblical evidence pointed to a mid-15th century BC date.’[6] Textual Evidence The early date rests principally on an application of the chronology given in 1 Kings 6:1, which appears to date the exodus 480 years before the reign of Solomon.[7] Since there is considerable agreement that Solomon’s reign started at around 960-960 BCE, counting 480 years back from this date places the exodus at c.1440 BCE.

In such an event Rameses II would have been the pharaoh of the oppression, and his son Merneptah (1224? C.) the pharaoh of the exodus.’[11] Archaeological Evidence for the Conquest In the absence of direct archaeological evidence for the Hebrew settlement in Goshen, and the lack of Egyptian records describing the Hebrews as an enslaved ethnic group, or the plagues, or subsequent exodus, attempts to date the exodus using archaeological evidence focused on dating the Hebrew entry into Canaan, searching for evidence of conquest.

Attempts have been made by proponents for both dates, and interpretation of the archaeological record has been much contested.

C., in the time of Rameses III.’[20] The Ongoing Dispute By the 1970s the date of the exodus had ceased to become a significant concern within critical scholarship, as many commentators no longer believed in the essential historicity of the event.

However, the issue continued to be debated hotly among evangelical and other faith professing scholars, as well as among a minority report of critical scholars and those professional archaeologists who considered the Biblical exodus account to preserve an essentially accurate historical core. [4] ‘Up until about 1925, this position was widely held by scholars, both evangelical and otherwise.’, ibid., p. [5] ‘At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars, both liberal and conservative, placed the date toward the end of the 13th century B.

Even though this essay addresses the interpretation of the data as presented by the archaeologists in establishing the late date (based on the accepted Egyptian chronology), nevertheless, the basic presupposition of this author (Dallas Burdette) is that the Bible is the final source of authority in establishing beyond doubt the time frame assigned for the Exodus.History of Interpretation Throughout the 19 century, Rameses II was considered the pharaoh under whom the Hebrews were enslaved, and his son Merneptah the pharaoh of the exodus.[2] However, discovery of the Merneptah Stele, referring to Israel as a recognized people settled in Canaan by the 14 century, invalidated this view.‘This new data appeared to require that Israel had already been settled there by the end of the 13th century BC.On the other hand, some interpreters assert the late date (13 century BC) as the most logical date, based, not upon the Bibles chronology, but rather upon the interpretation of some archaeological findings and the Generally Accepted Dates (GAD) for Egyptian chronology.Some scholars, in spite of the so-called archaeological data, still rely upon the biblical data in seeking a solution to this most perplexing question as to the time frame of the Exodus.

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